unplanned second economy grew up at low levels alongside the planned one, providing some of the goods and services that the planners could not. The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States -led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Its newspaper, For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy!, promoted Stalin's positions. Riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure, lack of investment, corruption and bad decision-making. Education also became important in giving rise to the New Man. This did not last, however, and Nikita Khrushchev eventually won the ensuing power struggle by the mid-1950s. The Soviet Polity in the Modern Era. 56 It emerged as a superpower in the post-war period. 184 The infant mortality rate increased from.7 in 1970.9 in 1974. A b Sakwa, Richard. 106 Communist Party Main article: Communist Party of the Soviet Union At the top of the Communist Party was the Central Committee, elected at Party Congresses and Conferences. Citation needed For a short period, quality was sacrificed for quantity. In March, the Soviets ended involvement in the war for good and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. 221 The Soviet establishment under General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev 's leadership clashed with the churches in 19581964, a period when atheism was emphasized in the educational curriculum, and numerous state publications promoted atheistic views. /19/1995, the Gini ratio increased by an average of 9 points for all former socialist countries. In the early 1960s, the Soviets awarded 40 of chemistry PhDs to women, compared to only 5 who received such a degree in the United States. Famines ensued, causing millions of deaths; surviving kulaks were persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour. The Soviet Union used the inquisitorial system of Roman law, where the judge, procurator, and defense attorney collaborate to establish the truth. Later, during Stalin's rule, Soviet culture was characterized by the rise and domination of the government-imposed style of socialist realism, with all other trends being severely repressed, with rare exceptions, for example Mikhail Bulgakov 's works. About 90 percent of the Soviet Union's Muslims were Sunnis, with Shias being concentrated in Azerbaijan. Gill, Graeme; Slider, Darrell (1993).